Every year, approximately 15,000 Year 6 students across the state of New South Wales seek selective school placement by participating in the Selective High Schools Test to win one of the 3,600 places offered for first-year entry into selective high schools.
Competition is fierce and it’s important to note the importance of literacy and its influence on the overall academic assessment test.
The process and marking criteria
First, let’s look at the test components and how it is marked.
The Selective High School Placement Test changed in 2021, with the new test giving greater emphasis to thinking skills, mathematical reasoning, reading and writing, and has adjusted and balanced the weighting given to the mathematics, reading and thinking skills test components.
Thinking Skills (previously General Ability), which now has 40 questions in 40 minutes. Mathematical Reasoning Skills, with 35 questions in 40 minutes. Reading, with 30 questions in 40 minutes, and Writing, which has increased to 30 minutes in time, as well as a different style in the stimulus.
The process also includes ‘wild-score’ processing which identifies students who, based on their school performance, may have done much worse than expected in the test. Where such students have been identified the moderating process takes this into account and adjusts scores accordingly. This ensures that students will not be disadvantaged by other students who attend the same school and may have done much worse than expected because of serious illness, misadventure or other cause.
In general, entry into a government selective school is determined by a profile score, which is derived by combining the students’ school marks in English and mathematics with their test results in the placement text.
The new test format is marked differently to previous years, and is now scored out of 100 (previously scored out of 200). Raw tests scores are then scaled to reduce the variability in test question difficulty. This scaled score is added to the moderated school assessment score to determine the final placement score. Scaling is a state-wide undertaking, with each scaled test component adjusted so they are weighted equally.
The weighted scaled test scores for each component are as follows:
Reading – 25
Mathematical Reasoning – 25
Thinking Skills – 35
Writing – 15
And the moderated school assessment score is 20.
The Selection process
The placement score will vary from year to year depending on the number of students applying, versus the number of places available.
Selection committees, consisting a minimum of two people – typically the principle as well as a parent or community representative, will review the list of applications in order of profile scores.
They will also consider requests for special consideration, the potential impact of disabilities, ethnic backgrounds, and students whose English education is less than 48 months.
Additionally, they may consider other relevant evidence of academic merit, for example, from overseas or interstate.
Once placements have been offered, the committee will then create a reserve list, based on reserve numbers offered in the previous year.
Reading is the key
Clearly there is a strong emphasis on the combination of reading and writing, but the importance of literacy goes far beyond those two immediate subjects.
When students struggle with reading comprehension, they often find themselves struggling in other areas of their education, and without the essential foundation of literacy skills, can find it difficult to excel in school into their later studies.
This may cause students to struggle with the understand instructions in a variety of different subjects, including maths and thinking skills. However sharp a student’s thinking skills may be, the inability to fully understand some of the questions will inevitably affect their results and inhibit them reaching their full potential.
Literacy affects our daily lives; the way we think, the way we communicate, how we fit into society. Early literacy acquisition is much more than an educational priority – it’s an investment in your child’s future that will position them for success.
I Can Read can help. Our unique, proprietary reading system delivers a fail-safe programme to bring your child’s reading skills up to par, as well as a number of writing programmes to ensure your child is able to comprehensively express themselves in writing. Contact us to explore which of our programmes best provides what your child will need to succeed in his or her application.
A great starting point is to book a free diagnostic assessment at one of our centres, where your child can be benchmarked against expectations for their stage of education.
This article should not be taken too seriously, except that the subject of the article is Callum who is 17 years old and has reading difficulties. These difficulties are hampering his life. It is not uncommon for teachers to tell parents whose children are struggling, “They’ll catch up.” But they don’t catch up!
Our view is that if a child cannot read effortlessly by grade three, something is wrong. The article points out two home truths. By grade 3, Callum needed intensive intervention in all areas of literacy, which never happened, so he never received the intervention he needed to overcome his difficulties. Second, his mother spent what she could afford on private tutors but by then, the gap between Callum and his peers was too wide, which is code for he was not instructed properly.
In its simplistic fashion, the article identifies that Callum failed to receive ‘phonics training’ which would certainly been of benefit to him. And that would likely be correct, as phonics has only just been reintroduced to the curriculum this year for year 1 students.
But, as discussed in our previous article https://icanreadsystem.com/when-will-they-ever-learn/, while we are happy to see phonics return as a necessary adjunct in learning how to read, phonics, per se is not sufficient. Teaching children to read is a specialised skill, which unfortunately is not prioritised when training teachers. The renowned researcher Max Coltheart wrote a great article about ten years ago, where he pointed out that the solution was not at hand because there were few people in Australia who could train teachers how to instruct children in the reading acquisition process.
The article hones in on ‘phonics’. It may be that children are not taught enough about phonics, but it is also as likely that those who are given ‘phonics training’ are misdirected and remain teachers of sight-based memory driven methods.
The tragedy is, as the article points out, that one in five 14-year-olds cannot read well enough, according to 2019 NAPLAN results, a figure that’s barely improved over a decade of national testing. Unfortunately, this article seems unaware that ‘Reading Recovery’ despite many teachers endorsing it, has little research to support that it is effective. Connie Juel wrote a penetrative report on Reading Recovery showing that its efficacy depended on children receiving one-on-one instruction and, in any event, the learning effects failed to sustain the child after about six weeks.
Teaching children to read using a word’s meaning as their guide is not balanced literacy. It’s rubbish! But it’s true that ‘Balanced literacy has been favoured by most Australian primary schools and university education faculties for decades’, which may go some way to explaining why so many children have acquired reading difficulties. The article contains a plethora of half-truths and misinterpreted assertions, but is it well meaning?
The syllabic approach does not work, but the article cites a number of schools using it. Its references to synthetic phonics is on steadier ground. However, the 18th century did not favour whole language and if you fail to learn how to read at Oatley Public School you must have a learning difficulty. The deviations to Japanese kana systems are meaningless, though it is probably quite true to assert that, ‘A lot of the kids in year 3, who were being referred to learning support, were struggling with phonemic awareness.’ Many teachers mention phonemic awareness, having little idea how to apply it. However, from what we read, there does seems to be a genuine desire to fix up the mess and one section stands above all others: ‘Children who can decode and understand words will find reading easier, the research says. And the more they read, the more readily they will recognise words, allowing them to focus more on what the words mean. They can fall back on phonics to decode unfamiliar words, just as adults do.’
The politicisation of this debate has not helped. School principals and teachers, irrespective of their time in the system, are unlikely to know how to teach reading, although this lack of expertise does not stop many educators promoting what they consider to be a result of their lengthy time in the classroom.
This article appears to place ‘phonics training’ up against the ineffectiveness of alternative approaches. The research does support phonics instruction if it is taught properly as part of the pre-literacy acquisition process but most often, it is not taught correctly.
Perhaps surprisingly, the ‘back to phonics brigade ‘does help. Many children who fail to appreciate that the spoken language consists of words and words consist of phonemes catch on when this simple fact is pointed out to them. The division between opposing groups as to the best instructional approach seems based more on beliefs rather than evidence. If the evidence was read closely and applied, our failures to teach children how to read would decrease significantly. The debate is not truly between ‘phonics’ and ‘whole word-whole language’ approaches any more than there is a debate between smoking or vaping. Both are bad for you. One might be less bad, so to speak.
With our passion for children’s literacy success, we created I Can Read, building a unique system, that has now taught over 300,000 children to read, and has never had a failure.
If you have concerns about your child’s reading education and would like find out more, we are always happy to chat. Please feel free to contact us any time…
Tony Earnshaw PhD
I Can Read Co-founder and Educational and Cognitive Psychologist
Parents often approach us with concerns that their child may be dyslexic.
So is dyslexia growing at an alarming rate, or is there another explanation? We believe the later.
You may not be aware that research into reading acquisition shows that, irrespective of the instructional methods used by teachers, some 60% of children will learn how to read. So this means, that irrespective of the teaching methods utilised by their teacher, around 60% of students work out for themselves the nature of the alphabetic principle, how to access phonemes, how to process a sequence of phonemes into co-articulated utterances, and more.
This 60% statistic enables schools to claim a majority success in teaching children to read, and the remaining 40% are noted as having some kind of learning difficulty. This is simply not true, and the failure rate of children learning to read at school can be attributed to the instructional inadequacy of the teaching method.
Dyslexia has become an easy label to assign to any child struggling with reading acquisition, while ignoring the root cause.
Some years ago, I worked for the Ministry of Education in Singapore as a Senior Educational Psychologist. Our work creating the I Can Read System had been completed, but we had not yet released the product into the educational market. Many children in Singapore attending elementary or primary school could not read. It was a puzzle, given that most non-readers were of at least average intelligence, and there was no apparent culprit that stood out as the cause of these poor levels of literacy. It was the time of my doctoral studies and my supervisor Professor Brian Byrne was visiting from the University of New England. Professor Byrne wrote The Alphabetic Principle and was right up to speed on the bottom-up approach to reading acquisition, starting with phonemic awareness.
We were both quite surprised at the extent of poor literacy in the local schools. I knew that it was unlikely that more than 3-5% of these students would be dyslexic, so it was a puzzle as to why so many had not learned how to read properly.
First a word about dyslexia.
TRUE DYSLEXIA IS QUITE RARE!
True developmental dyslexia is quite rare. A ‘truly’ dyslexic child resists even the best reading instructional attempts to remediate the condition and the condition has been shown to have strong organic associations both genetically and within the operations of the brain. The current estimate is that up to 5% of children may be in this category. The truth is that no one really knows.
Although we identified 20-40% of children in Singapore schools presenting with reading weaknesses, the fact is that most were not developmentally dyslexic and could respond positively to correct reading instruction. Herein lies the key to the problem of acquired reading difficulties: poor, ineffective teaching methodologies.
Singapore aside, acquired reading difficulties exist in nearly every English-speaking country where children are expected to know how to read, including Australia, and the cause is simply poor, ineffective teaching methodologies. Traditionally, children acquire the skill of learning how to read by passing through a pre-school process such as kindergarten, or they may be home-schooled in their early years and receive misguided instructions from parents or care givers.
We can list a number of such instructional approaches but most of them have a few things in common. These variables are the hidden culprits. What they have in common is that rather than rely on cognitive processing, they are memory-dependent. Teachers commonly start their instructions by drawing attention to the alphabet. They write the letters on a board, a,b,c… and the child often learns the names of the letters before anything else. Later the child may be shown a picture of a cat. The child may say the word /cat/ and be told that the word /cat/ starts with the letter c /see/. Overall, the child is taught the alphabet and is expected to memorise it. This is very common. We have all heard teachers say, “Ay for apple!”
However, there is no relationship between the first sound in the word /cat/, and the letter /see/. What this boils down to is that the child learns a whole language-based recall of previously sighted words. Just take flash cards which juxtapose a picture with a word. The child sees these enough times, and should the child have a strong visual memory, he or she will, in all likelihood, acquire a sight vocabulary of up to 2000 words. If a memory-dependent methodology is utilised by the child successfully, it is highly likely that the child may end up with no way of decoding unfamiliar words, words previously unseen and therefore un-memorised.
A child may look at the word ‘cat’ and say, “See, ay, tee” over and over, but sadly will never be able to produce the word ‘cat’ from this combination of letter names. Or another child (who may have memorised ‘cat’ as a sight word) may look at a nonsense word such as ‘dap’, and by saying “Dee, ay, pee,” will never be able to coarticulate the letters in the word to pronounce the word correctly, without knowing that the word is a combination of sounds (represented by letters) rather than letter names.
Some twenty years ago, most western education systems woke up to the effectiveness of ‘phonics training’, although sadly many failed to understand how phonics training should work. Instead of showing the child a picture of a /cat/ (example) and telling the child that the scribble below ‘says’ cat, teachers showed the child a picture of a cat and told the child that cat has three sounds /cuh-ah-tuh/ so don’t forget that (i.e., remember). Teachers have been famously caught starting ‘phonics training’ by writing the letter ‘a’ on a board and telling the child that this letter says the sound /ah/ and so on, except that it isn’t true. Letters do not make or say sounds. Letters represent sounds (are pictures or drawings of sounds). We make the sounds!
By now you might have gathered that the traditional method for learning to read was and is in many places, based on the ability to remember (for example) that the letter ‘a’ says the sound /ah/. It doesn’t!
The word /have/ does have the sound /ah/ but the word /gate/ does not. Nor do the words /was/, /path/, /any/, /ago/ (and there are more). This is where it all starts to go wrong for the child endowed with a weaker visual memory who applies the memory-dependent lessons into his approach to reading. Cumulatively, children taught to read through a memory-dependent sight-based methodology may work out for themselves the relationship between the spoken word and the ear’s ability to access its sounds and then attach the sound to its common visual representation. If they have (innate) phonemic awareness, the brain – having learned the language/words – they may be able to separate and access the sounds making up a word. Having accessed the sounds without being told the sounds, the next step required is the ability to process the sequence making up the word. It might sound a bit technical, and our opinion is that many children with acquired reading weaknesses are likely to have been taught by teachers who themselves, through no fault of their own, are poorly trained in teaching reading. Thus, these children may be experiencing what we call ‘acquired dyslexia’.
Enrolling your child with a specialist reading centre, such as I Can Read in preparation for starting school, will give them the best chance of reading success and equip them with skills they need to overcome the current ineffective teaching methods they will encounter. However, it is important to continue with their specialist reading education if possible, once they do start school to avoid losing the advantage they have gained.
Having established their child’s early learning, parents often fall into the trap of ceasing this specialist education at the start of Kindergarten. It is their reasonable belief that this external education it is no longer required, but in reality, find their child succumbing to ‘acquired dyslexia’ as a result of having to adapt to the education system’s memory-based learning.
Parents choosing to cease specialist learning at school age may find it useful to return to their reading centre periodically for an assessment to ensure their child is not falling behind.
Some children are better able to adapt than others, but at least being aware will be helpful in monitoring their progress.
The I Can Read system has taught over 300,000 children to read, including those with learning difficulties and some with dyslexia. In our experience, every child can learn to read with the right methodology, and any difficulties you do encounter, is likely not due to dyslexia.
Tony Earnshaw | Co-founder and Educational Psychologist, I CAN READ
If you would like more information on reading acquisition, are concerned about your child’s reading progress, or would like to book a FREE assessment, please contact the I Can Read head office at Dee Why on 02 9972 1419 or
A response to the Department of Education’s latest innovation!
NSW Education authorities are now making an assessment for phonics compulsory for 2021 Grade 1 students. It’s about 20 years late!
Frankly it’s ridiculous. The evidence cited by Sarah Mitchell (State Minister for Education) has been available since the 1970s. Clearly an assessment for phonics sensitivity is required but most so-called education experts do not appreciate that, while phonics awareness is a necessity, it is NOT sufficient for the beginning reader. One wonders how it is possible that a government isn’t up to speed on the research.
The reason is that the Department of Education doesn’t follow the research. Remember how it wasted $450 million on the failed system called ‘Reading Recovery’ which didn’t recover many participants even though a plethora of vocal teachers lauded it. It was applied because of political pressure from a minority of interested parties without the benefit of any supportive data.
This new ‘initiative’ from the NSW Dept of Education won’t hurt. It will mislead parents and teachers into believing that, by returning to a phonics inclusive approach, the solution will be found. The Department is playing catch up, again!
Phonics alone is NOT an effective way to teach reading.
Applying phonics as part of the learning process is clearly an improvement on whatever failed systems the Department currently applies, but it does not teach children how to read. Why the Department continues to trot out simplistic non-existent solutions beats us. Do they think that parents will blindly accept their poorly thought-out approaches?
Research has identified a number of necessary variables required as part of the English language acquisition process and phonics is clearly one of them. Phonics is basically the ability to associate a sound with a written letter. There is also the assumption that those tested will somehow have no difficulties processing the sequences of sounds/letters. This is false because many children will easily follow this approach innately without appreciating their actual cognitive activities.
We have no aim to be inflammatory, or political here – we are simply driven by our passion for the subject and our work of more than 20 years, built on solid research that the Department of Education chooses to ignore. This passion led us to create the unique I Can Read system, a proven and complete bottom-up based system which has taught nearly half a million children to read since 2003 and has never had a failure with its core programme. The I Can Read methodology is completely driven by research and was created by Australian registered educational psychologists.
Created here in Australia, our system was accepted by the Singapore Ministry of Education and made available in schools in that country. I Can Read was instrumental in Singapore becoming one of the most literate countries in the world, and has since spread across Asia.
Australian education leaders declined to embrace our system, and meanwhile, Australia has slipped in literacy from 4th in the world to 17th. For this reason, we created our own I Can Read total literacy learning centres for parents who are simply not satisfied with their childrens’ literacy progress in school.
Stick with those who actually know what they are doing in the application of reading instruction and have the data to back up their claims.
If you’d like more information, check out the following pages of our website, and if you would like to talk to someone to find out more, please call us on 02 9972 1419.
In most English-speaking countries, reading instruction begins as soon as a child develops the ability to be phonologically sensitive to the segmental sound system of English. This occurs at about four to five years of age Therefore, it is not unreasonable for primary teachers to expect Year 1 children to be able to read. But the reality is that many children won’t be fluent readers at that stage, and many of them will know little about phonological awareness, the alphabetic principal or blending strategies.
The reasons for this are:
Firstly, about twenty percent of children are phonologically insensitive. This means that cognitively, they don’t hear the separation of sounds in spoken words.
Secondly, some children are learning to read English as a second language, and have become confused about processing sequences of sound-letters. If they have captured their first language by depending on cues, recall or other memory-dependent associations, they may try to learn to read English in the same way.
Thirdly, a problem is bound to develop when instructional practices do not take into account how the brain processes information from sound to sight.
A good example of poor instructional practice is in the misapplication of phonics. We know the teaching of applied phonics is frequently applied incorrectly because many non-reading children actually know their phonics. They can associate a letter ‘b’ with its common sound /buh/, but they are learning backwards! The mistake occurs when the teacher shows the child the letters before correcting the child’s phonological (ability to access spoken sounds) skills.
These language skills need to develop before children learn to connect spoken sounds with their visual appearance in letters and words. When teachers introduce children to the letters of the alphabet first, before establishing phonological sensitivity, they mistakenly encourage the child to become dependent on visual recall or memory instead of linking the child’s appreciation of sounds and symbols through processing of sound to symbol.
Many teachers do not appreciate the significance of pre-reading skills, simply due to the way they themselves are trained through the current education system.
As parents, you can help prepare your children to learn to read, Here’s how:
Encourage them to use vocabulary and read to them every day.
Be patient and wait until the child is phonologically ready (usually after 3.5 years) before helping them to identify beginning spoken sounds.
Avoid memory dependency by not using flash cards for phonetically regular words and not pointing to words and asking your children to remember them.
Encourage them to love story time.
Play the I Spy game after the age of 3.5 to 4 years to encourage your children to hear the first sounds in spoken words (use sounds only; not letter names). Start with easy continuous sounds, such as /ssss/ and /mmm/ (sun, monkey).
Last, but not least, take them to a specialist reading centre like I Can Read so they can learn the right way!
If you are a parent or caregiver of a young child and if you have been attracted to internet based, or face-to-face learning programmes purporting to offer materials or resources designed to teach your child to read, perhaps you should consider a number of variables before you make any decisions.
Anyone promoting their products can pretty much say what they like on the internet. So how do you know it’s true? How do you know it’s reliable? Can you trace their claims back to the source? Or is it just spin? In the event that the site under your consideration makes attractive claims about what children can or cannot learn in respect to reading and literacy, ask a few questions such as:
To whom can a claim be traced? Or is it just rhetoric with no point of reference? In other words, does the site lack credibility? A site to take notice of will cite its authors and reference its claims; otherwise it lacks credibility.
For example, If you are checking out the I Can Read® System, you will learn how the I Can Read® came into existence. This is verifiable information: you can check it.
The I Can Read® System was developed by two Australian educational psychologists, Tony Earnshaw & Annabel Seargeant between 1997 and 2000. Both Tony Earnshaw and Annabel Seargeant are qualified and registered Australian educational psychologists. Tony has an undergraduate degree in English and a psychology degree from the University of New England in NSW as well as a Masters degree with first class honours in how children learn to read. Annabel has an undergraduate degree in English with a major in English literature, as well as a psychology degree and a post-grad Diploma in Counselling.
The school education system is not a complete failure of course, but its failure to ensure 100% of literacy is significant. Did you know that a staggering 47% of the Australian population is functionally illiterate and innumerate? (i)
In 2018, the Federal Education Minister, Simon Birmingham described Australia’s educational decline ‘a real worry’ when responding to a report in The Guardian:
‘Australian children are lagging behind when it comes to developing basic skills in primary school but they are staying in school for longer.
The Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth’s five-year snapshot, released on Sunday, shows Australia ranks 35th out of 40 OECD countries on preschool attendance, although the number of four- and five-year-olds who attend has dropped in recent years.
It also shows three in 10 year 4 students aren’t meeting minimum numeracy standards while one in four are below standard in science and one in five are not at the required reading level.’ (ii)
Blame for these low literacy levels has generally been assigned to the fluctuating nature of early childhood and government funding. But might the literacy toolset being provided to Australian teachers be the real culprit? Are teachers inadequately trained to teach literacy?
Research into reading acquisition shows that, irrespective of the instructional methods used by teachers, some 60% of children will learn how to read. So that means, that irrespective of the teaching methods utilised by their teacher, around 60% of students work out for themselves the nature of the alphabetic principle, how to access phonemes, how to process a sequence of phonemes into co-articulated utterances, and more.
This 60% statistic enables schools to claim a majority success in teaching children to read, with the remaining 40% noted as having some kind of learning difficulty – or, as teachers frequently tell parents, “He/she will come good later.” This is not true, and the failure rate of children learning to read can be attributed to the instructional inadequacy of the teaching.
This is not the fault of the teachers, but of the way in which they are being trained themselves.
Mary Ruth Mendel, Chair of the Australian Literacy and Numeracy foundation, blames insufficient funding. She expresses concern that, of all the OECD nations, Australia is ranked third from the bottom of the list. Ms Mendel said Australia was “distressingly behind” in its funding for literacy, ranking third last of all OECD Nations. (iii) She claims that even if children are taught phonics, they may still adopt a sight recognition strategy for reading, which can put them far behind their peers in reading and spelling. When teaching methods explicitly encourage sight memorisation, more children will head down that wrong path. At I Can Read, Australian parents continue to tell us that their child has been learning sight word lists at school, which is proven to be an ineffective method of literacy learning.
The Australian Council for Educational Research note that Australian children’s average score had improved by 17 points since 2011, putting them ahead of kids in 24 countries, but behind 13 countries. Australia was equal 12th in the world for reading, but its students’ performance declined by 12 points between 2009 and 2015, a significant change. Only 61% of Australian students achieved the National Proficient Standard in reading.
Scientific research has shown how children learn to read, and how they should be taught. However, many educators are not made aware of the process and are not taught how to teach reading during their studies to become teachers. As a result, many children are being set up to fail.
So, as parents, what can you do to help? Unfortunately, it is difficult for parents to have a significant effect on the education system.
What you can do is:
Do some research and contact a reputable alternative provider outside of the school system.
Ensure the provider you choose employs a system based on research by qualified professionals and has a proven track record.
Ask to see evidence of actual results – not just anecdotal reviews.
Find out if you can arrange a free assessment for your child.
If your child is pre-school age, (readiness varies, but generally, we find around 3.5 years) now is the perfect time to start their literacy journey and give them an advantage before starting school. You may have heard that deferral of education until kindergarten is the way to go, but this is not supported by research. Giving your child the tools and skills to learn to read correctly will help avoid any potential damage to their ability to learn as a result of memory-based school reading techniques.
If you would like more information, or a free assessment, please contact the I Can Read head office at Dee Why on 02 9972 1419
Annabel Seargeant Co-Creator of the I Can Read system, education psychologist and author.
The I Can Read System is a proven system, based on research. It was created by qualified professionals (educational psychologists) from the bottom up, and has copious amounts of evidential support. The I Can Read System has a 100% success record, and has enabled over 300,000 children to read through 8 countries.
Every teacher at all Australian I Can Read literacy centres has been fully trained in the I Can Read System methodology.